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Many Plums.

A leading plum grower of Geneva, N. Y., picked and marketed last season 40,000 eight-pound baskets of plums, says The Rural New Yorker.

Gueii (or Blue Magnum Bonum Plum).

Large, roundish oval, dark purple; flesh firm, a little coarse, sub-acid; valuable for culinary purposes, and fitable for mar- ket. First of Autumn. Origin, Lansing- burgh, N. Y.

Fellenberg (Italian Prune).

Medium, oval, pointed and tapering at ends; suture small, distinct; dark purple, with dark blue bloom; stalk an inch long, scarcely sunk; flesh greenish yellow, juicy sweet, of good quality, freestone. Last of August.

Shropshire Damson Plum,

This is the best of Damsons. These are smallish plums, produced in thick clusters

view, = =. , v % r-%, ar for preserving. The tree is grower in the nurseries, is difficult to propa- gate, therefore trees are always in short supply, and cannot be sold as low as other plum trees,

Shipper’s Pride Plum.

This large, round, purple plum is recom- mended for its certainty to produce a long crop of fruit, for its fine appearance and superior shipping qualities. The flesh is firm and of excellent quality; the tree is a strong, upright grower. In Northwestern New York, where it originated, it has never failed to produce a heavy crop since the original tree was large enough to bear. A plum that will produce large annual crops of large, handsome, good fruit, is indeed @n acquisition.


Plums, hi

A correspondent of Popular Gardening tells how he saved his plum crop in the summer of 1890: “July and August were very dry and I began to have fears that I would lose my plums from this cause as the leaves began to droop and the plums to shrink. To counteract the effects of the drouth I covered the ground under the trees so far as the limbs extended, with coarse manure to the depth of six or eight inches and then thoroughly soaked it with water; the watering was repeated after a few days and I was agreeably surprised to See the trees revive, the plums swell out plump and nice so that, as a result, I har- vested a magnificent crop of choice plums, which readily brought four dollars a bushel.

German Prune.

Sells for higher prices n market on ac- count of high quality. A leading favorite. There is no easily grown fruit that gives greater or more certain profit than the German Prune. They were introduced in this country by Germans many years ago, and for a time these furnished the only market for them. But the prune as a fruit for drying has entirely surpassed the plum, and though it is always dried whole, the seed is not troublesome to the eater. The Pacific Coast States have furnished most of the prunes for commerce. But it is a fruit that succeeds equally well in the East, With the advantage that if more grown near our large cities, there will be con- siderable demand for the fruit for eating When ripened, but not dried.—American Cultivator.

Plum and Black Knot.

I am providing a piece of ground calcu- lating to eet out 100 plum trees. I would like your advice on one or two points. My Soil is clay but not a very stiff clay, with & northern slope just about sufficient for drainage without underdraining. Location is near enough to Lake Erie so that we ere exempt from frost. We had no frost last spring after peaches or plums were in

. I wish to plant about four varieties and thought of using Lombard, Bradshaw, Niagara and Shippers’ Pride. Can you sug- gest a better selection? The probable mar- ket will not be far away. Since beginning = Preparations I find that a neighbor has

‘black knoi.” Has had several trees en- re killed by it and some more badly ef- ected. The trees are about 80 rods in a Southeast direction from my place. Would my danger of getting it be great? And is

hard to control? We have a few trees

» but have seen no “black knot” yet. ey are of two old varieties, don’t know

plete without it. J

names but the fruit rots badly. Is @ny remedy for that? If you can

answer these questions it will do me a great favor.—Respectfully, N. T. Phelps.

Ashtabula, Co., Ohio.

(Reply—Your location seems to be desir- able, also the soil. Your list of varieties are good. Lombard is one of the most pro- ductive plums. I should want to plant a few German Prune. You will have to see that your neighbor burns the black knot branches on his farm, or ‘the disease may be carried to your orchard. The only rem- edy for black knot is, cut off and burn them as soon as discovered.—C. A. Green.

Top Grafting,

Many farmers who have good orchards suffer loss by allowing a few trees which bear worthless fruit to remain year after year. When this poor fruit is about to fall the owner resolves to change the tops next spring by grafting, but before the time comes around he has forgotten his resolution and the 'tree remains. This may be prevented by placing some permanent mark on them or “blazing” the spare branches.

In inserting the grafts the common mis- take should be avoided of setting them out at some distance from the center, thus al- lowing much of the defective growth to re- main after all. Select shoots never more than an inch or two in diameter and make short stumps of them for inserting the grafts. A round and compact head may thus be given. If a sufficient number of grafts are set the fruit may be changed in a very few years from the useless sorts to the best by this operation—Home and Farm.

Bradshaw Plum.

A very large and fine early plum, dark violet red, juicy and good. ‘Trees erect and vigorous; very productive, valuable for market. ‘The tree is very hardy and vig- orous. As regards productiveness it is un- equaled by any plum we have ever fruited. To produce the finest fruit heavy thinning should be practiced. The quality is excel- lent and it is destined to become one of the most popular of all plums for canning, while its attractive color, good quality and shipping properties will cause it to be sought for as a market variety. It ripens ten days to two weeks later than Abun- dance. This plum resembles Niagara in size, color and general good qualities. It is a grand variety, and no collection is com-

home use on account of its fine quality, and for market for the reason that it is pos- sessed of great beauty and large size and is enormously productive.

The Simoni Plum.

Bven a cursory giance over the list of fruit sales in eastern markets given accu- rately and in detail in each number of the California Fruit Grower, will reveal the fact that the Prunus Simoni has taken a leading position throughout the season, bringing as much as $5.15 per box, when other varieties in the same car sold at much lower prices. Mr. I. H. Thomas, of Visalia, describes it thus in Professor Wickson’s “California Fruits; ‘Very fine as an early plum; ripens with Royal Ha- tive, and ships well; large, six and a quar- ter to seven inches circumference; flesh firm, rich, sweet, aromatic, delicious, with marked pine-apple and faint banana flavors; pit very small.” To those con- templating planting fruit orchards next winter we commend a careful study of the market returns as shown in the columns of this paper during the fresh fruit season. It can be learned there, at small cost, just what sells best in the eastern market, which fact should prove a valuable guide to him who plants an orchard.—California Fruit Grower.

Clinton, Mich., August 17. Chas. ‘A. Green:

Dear Sir:—In your August paper I notice Fighting the Plum Curculio, Prof. A. J. Cook, taken from Rural New Yorker. My method explained to the Prof. is as you describe, entirely different from what I use it and also from my description to Cook. He asked me if he could publish it. I said yes; as I have no secrets from fruit grow- ers. This is the first notice I have seen. If you will, in next issue, give as I use it any plum tree may be thoroughly jarred as follows: Take the rubber from clothes wringer, three inches long, have a handle from hard, stiff wood turned four to five feet long according to size of trees; for larger trees longer handle to reach farther up. Shoulder as large as outside of rubber, balance of stick if good hickory about one inch, one and three-fourths above shoulder to fit snug in hole of rubber, this will leave 1% inch rubber to spring and wear off which lasts me about three years, when the plug will get through the rubber and injure the tree. On small end of the stick fii a good malleable ferrule; place the rub- ber end of stick against the main limb or body of tree well up and with a heavy mal- let such as carpenters use when framing. Strike it a full blow and your correspond- ent, H. S. W. Little, Utica, will find the little Turks will come down from any rea- sonable size tree. I have used this for five years with no damage to bark or trees. I have had no luck trying to poi- son with Paris green or - London purple, have tried both faithfully and long. While some of my neighbors with a few trees have succeeded iin getting plums, others failed to get any. I have a very fine crop of peaches, pears, and plums, all much in want of rain. My vineyard has been nearly used up for two years with black rot, also a few vines at residence in town vineyard; have thoroughly treated with sulphate of copper early and Bor- deaux mixture afterwards, rot very slight in vineyard at home, this season.

Sowed garden last fall to rye and have let it grow as it was not practical to cul- tivate, the grap? vires having a full crop of rye growing among them; are entirely clear from mildew or black rot without any other application. Is slovenly cultivation any preventive of black rot? I have extended this too far already, for once; whatever you think worth publishing do so.

is becoming better

named: hence, in my opinion, where the climate and soil are suitable,. the possibil: “thes or prohta sess turns from the inve ment are in favor of the plums.”

The Native Plum.

The development of our native plum from one species to a hundred and fifty is interestingly treated by Professor L. H. Bailey, of the Cornell Experiment Station. Professor Bailey classifies these hundred and fifty varieties into eight groups. The Americana, Hortulana, Hortulana Mineri, Angustifolia, Marianna, Maritima, Hy- brids and unclassified varieties. Owing to the fact that most plums do not fertilize themselves, unnamed and unclassified hy- brids are almost legion. But there are cer- tain well defined varieties and these Pro- fessor Bailey has taken pains to name and describe.

He favors comparatively open planting as easier, neater and just as effective. As to the selection of stocks for grafting the weight of authority is in favor of the Ma- rianna, which is superior to the peach be- cause of its greater hardiness and because it never sprouts from the roots. As to adaptation for different climates the Wild Goose is the best all round variety, owing to its hardiness and productiveness rather than to the quality of the fruit. In Wis- consin, Iowa and Nebraska only the Ameri- cana is hardy. The Chickasaws are best adapted to tthe Middle and Southern States. —Farm, Field and Stockman.

S. D. Willard Talks Plums.

The following facts and opinions were obtained in an interview with Mr. Willard by the Rural New Yorker:

“A good many every-day farmers who grow a variety of crops, have heard that there is profit in plum culture, and would like to try it. Can you advise them to start in plum growing?”

“Yes; provided they will work as intel- ligently in plum growing as they would in growing a corn crop. The growing of any fruit crop by many farmers, is made a sec- ondary matter. Trees are planted and al- lowed to grow for themselves; hence, the Jarge number of failures that are notice- able throughout the entire country. Were the corn field or potato patch neglected in a like manner, bankruptcy would soon fol- low. The trouble isn’t half so much that the nurserymen sell ‘cull stock’ as that: the farmer gives cull culture.”’

“But why plums rather ‘than apples, pears or peaches?” .

“Keep out of the crowd! The majority of those who have land, are more strongly inclined to the planting of the latter. Plums cannot ‘be grown successfully over so large an area of territory as can the other fruits

“What gave plum-growing its ‘boom?

“It has been well advertised! For the past 10 or 12 years, interest in this fruit has been growing all over the country. This bas developed some valuable new varietjes. The California growers have greatly aided this ‘boom.’ Undoubtedly, the choicest va- rieties of plums that have ever been intro- duced, have been brought out within a few years by Luther Burbank. So far as beauty, large size and luscious quality are concerned, they have never been equaled.”

“But won’t the ‘business be overdone?’

“Yes and no. The markets are now fre- quently cverstocked with varieties that are not wanted. By this, I mean those common sorts that are more generally pro- duced by careless growers; but those choice and tempting sorts that are required for our city fruit stands, and are most valued by our best families for preserving, are not yet produced in quantities equal to the demand, and will not be for a long time.”

“What about varieties?’

“The following out of 50 or 60 sorts, after careful test, have proved to be the most satisfactory to me, because of their period of ripening and good qualities for long-distance shipments: Field, the Dam- sons, Burbank, Reine Claude, German Prune, Italian Prune and Grand Duke.”

“Any special rules for cultivating the plum?”

“The plum orchard should annually be thoroughly cultivated, so as not to allow the growth of weeds to rob the soil of the nourishment that the tree needs, and to which it is entitled. The plum is a surface- rooting tree; hence, by thorough .cultiva- tion, I do not mean the deep plowing which sometimes is given young trees.. My own plan is to keep the soil so constantly stirred that weeds shall have no chance for growth, and that in periods of protracted drought, such as we have had during the past summer, ‘there shall ‘be less evapora- tion of the moisture requiréd for the health and vigor of the tree.”

“In a few words, what is the history of your ideal tree from planting to picking? How do you care for it?’

“The annual cultivation last referred to, coupled with such liberal applications of plant food as may seem to be required to produce a healthy growth, and insure the development of a vigorous foliage that will be carried through the season; the latter is an important essential in the production of quality in any fruit. Annual pruning is equally as important as the other feat- ures named, and should be performed only during the seasons of the year when the tree is in a dormant condition. The choicest peaches, apples or pears are produced only by such judicious thinning of the fruit as may be required at the proper season of the year. Our most practical and best fruit growers have all learned this lesson, and the wise men practice it. If essential in eonnection with the fruits named, it is doubly so in the production of good plums.”

“How far apart should the trees be in the orchard?”

“As a rule, I think about 16 or 18 feet apart is a safe distance to be recommended; but while this is so, I would myself, on high-priced land, set them closer. How- ever, when doing so, I would resort to such high feeding as, in my judgment, would be required to promote the best re- sults.” F

“What insect pests and fungous diseases trouble you?’

“We rarely suffer from any insect pest except the curculio, and I have never found anything eqwal to the jarring process for disposing of this enemy of the plum grow- er. The process is very simple, and if fol- lowed assiduously for a few days after the fruit is formed, will virtually insure the crop.”

“What is the best soil for plums?’

| eical, and ft has besided-a considerable

“Had you asked me-this question 10 years

since, I would most assuredly have said a heavy clay loam; but within a few years past, I have seen some of the best plum orchards that have ever come to my no- tice grown upon a light, sandy loam; hence, previous theories in regard to this, have been upset.”

“What is the best plant-food—stable ma- nure or ‘fertilizer?’

“A fair proportion of each, in my opin- ion, is best adapted to the needs of this fruit, I think that, in most stable manure, we are likely to get too much nitrogenous matter; ‘hence, I ama believer in the use of such fertilizers as will give us potash and phosphoric acid. In my own experi- ence, I have fourtd wood ashes of more value than anything else I have ever used for plant food. By this, I mean in com- bination with a reasonable amount of sta- ble manure.”

“Now tell us, in a paragraph, the story of a successful plum tree.”

“The successful plum tree is one of mod- erate growth in the nursery, on a soil that has not been over-stimulated for its pro- duction, has been planted with care, cul- tivated and grown intelligently by a man of sufficient liberality to bestow upon it the same liberal treatment that would be given to a thoroughbred animal; i. e., pro- tected, cared for and fed with considera- tion up to such time as a bounteous crop of fruit may have matured ready for har- vesting. This should be picked and han- dled carefully, in baskets, provided espe- cially for this purpose, and in them trans- ferred to the packing house or barn, where it should be assorted and graded carefully as regards size and quality, all being so nicely done that the producer would feel proud to have his mame appear upon the package on whatever market it might be shipped. The product thus handled, finding its way into the hands of 1n honest city commissiqn man, of which, I believe, there are many in all of our cities, will furnish convincing proof of the fact that there are successful plum trees. In fact, plums and currants make a good fruit team; but it must be remembered that both require the ‘best of care.”


The fact stated the other day by a con- temporary in a letter to the editor, of the writer’s belief that the daily eating of prunes is a preventive of appendicitis, is an interesting one. The letter cited the rec- ord of a fruit valley an California, whose 75,000 residents enj@y a continuous fruit

season. Yet not ome it is reported, has ever had a symptom® of appendicitis, and the correspondent, @8 thas ‘been said, as-

SS Ky F, Tepe he e he

nutritive excellence, making it a valuable family food. It is a good plan to prepare five or ten pounds at a time, saving time and having it always ready. Let the prunes stand at least four hours in water enough to cover them; then put in a little cold water—just enough to keep from burn- ing—and stew very slowly, closely covered. Wien done, and they should be plump and tender at this stage, add two pounds of sugar to five pounds of fruit, and leave them on the stove perhaps fifteen minuies longer. Pack in jars; and serve freely.— New York Times.

Lombard Plum,

The Lombard is a’ great favorite for the following reasons: The tree seems to adapt itself to any locality; it is extremely hardy, producing good crops where many varieties will not grow; ‘it is a strong growing tree—- trees on our grounds five years of age being as large again as some varieties planted the same year; it is exceedingly productive. My experience has been that it outyields most other varieties, and yet all varieties of plums are remarkably pro- ductive. It is not equal to some varieties in quality, and yet it is enjoyable eaten out of hand and desirable for canning and other domestic purposes. Those who are not familiar with the superior varieties would consider this delicious. The fruit usually hangs so thick on the limbs that we are compelled to thin out one-half. The more you thin it, the larger, brighter and better the remaining fruit will be. It is a hand- some reddish plum, the flesh yellow, juicy and pleasant. Season—August. More than one of the leading fruit growers have planted the Lombard tree especially for a stock for top budding and grafting slow growing varieties, as it is one of the most vigorous growers, and gives great satisfac- tion for this purpose. It is an excellent va- riety, and should be planted in all gardens and orehards. It can be relied upon for a crop often when some other varieties fail.

Fighting the Plum Curculio.

H. S. W., Little Utica, N. Y.—I have a fine plum tree too large to be jarred suc- cessfully. Will spraying it with Paris green kill the curculio, and, if so, when should it be done?

Answer.—If you spray for the plum cur- culio, use one pound of London-purple or Paris green to 200 gallons of water. Apply as soon as the blossoms fall, and three times afterwards at intervals of 10 days. If a very heavy rain comes spray it once after it has ceased. My own experience does not recotfimend this remedy, but oth- ers praise it, I am trying it very thor- oughly this season, and hope to settle the question beyond any possible doubt. The jarring never fails with me. In case of large trees I jar the limbs. To jar we must have a mallet that ‘will not bruise the limbs, and must give a quick blow so as to produce a sudden jar. We must do this either very early or very late in the day; then the insects fall to the sheet and remain quiet till caught. At mid-day they are more active and may take wing. For a mallet we can pad it with carpeting, or may take the rubber of a clothes wringer and insert a handle which will not reach quite through. The handle should be cut with a shoulder and made to -fit so tight that it will remain secure with no fasten- ing. We-can strike with the end or side. It will usually be more convenient to strike with the former.—Prof. A. J. Cook, Rural New Yorker.

A poor paint is bad, for when you want to repaint, the whole, being scaly, and rough, will have to be scraped off, requir-

it. ‘TY j

ing great expense in the way of labor.

The Abundance Japan Plum.

The Abundance is large, showy and beau- tiful. Amber, turning to a rich, bright, cherry color, with a decided white bloom, and highly perfumed. Flesh light yellow, exceedingly juicy and tender, and of de- licious sweetness impossible to describe. Stone small and parts readily from flesh. For canning it is also excellent. Its season is early-in August in this State, adding to its special value. The editor of The Rural New Yorker writes: “From one little Abundance tree we picked 10 pecks of fruit. The quality is excellent. When fully ripe they are full of juice. The flesh is tender and there is mingled with the plum a peach flavor that is refreshing and agreeable.” ‘That the Abundance proves to be all that is claimed for it, seems now a settled fact. It is to us a blessing and a revelation—a blessing that we may enjoy plums of our own raising, and a revelation in that we have never before been able to raise plums because of the curculio. August 4, 1895, the Rural New Yorker said: “The Abundance Japan plum tree on our grounds is a sight to behold. ‘The branches are wreaths of fruit, and they, as well as the tree itself, are held up by props and ropes. Here we have Abundance loaded with beautiful fruit, while not a precaution has been taken to destroy the eurculio. Blessed be the Abundance! It is well named.”

The Plum Curculio.


Prof. Charles V. Riley, Entomologist at.

Washington, D. C., in a paper read be- fore the Massachusetts Horticultural So- ciety, January 23, 1892, gives these inter- esting facts relating to the plum curculio. He says to understand some later efforts to destroy this insect it is necessary to em- rhasize prominent traits in its life history. The fact has been established that it pro- duces but one generation annually.

The beetles hibernate under leaves or bark, in woods or other sheltered places near stone-fruit orchards. They issue from such winter quarters as soon as or before the buds put out in the spring. Both male and female feed on the tender foliage for some time before the females have a charce to ovipost in the young fruit. While the nights are cool they hide under any shelter within reach. Where the base of the tree is kept clean, and the earth raked, chips laid round under the trees form a mest satisfactory trap for them, as in the early morning they are somewhat torpid and easily killed.Later in the season the jar- ring process is one of the most satisfactory ways of securing an uninjured crop of ‘f tsenical treatment is based on young foliage in the early season, and sec- ondly, on the habit of the female gnawing with her jaws a crescent shaped mark in order to form a deadened flap around the egg she has thrust under the skin of the fruit. One thing to be considered in the use of arsenites against this insect is the effect of these mineral poisons on the dif- ferent stone fruit trees. Spraying against the plum curculio is only partially success- ful and the same may be said of other thynchophorus or snout-bearing beetles, which injuriously affect fruit, viz.: the quince and the apple curculio, and plum gougers,

Pruning Plums.

The plum tree came next for treatment. The heavy crops of two successive seasons, the neglect of pruning last year, and the gaps caused by black-knot excisions had given some of them a rather unsightly ap- pearance. A lighter pruning would prob- ably have increased the chances of a larger yield next year, but that the trees received will be of more lasting benefit to them. With so much shortening in and removal of boughs bent by weight of fruit, the branches look stubby and the trees rather bare, but they are now in shape, and will render a good account of 'them- selves two years hence, at any rate. The top shoots, two feet or more long, were taken off just below where they were shortened two years ago, and all were reached with a Waters’ pruner with a han- dle df ten fect. Plum trees, according to my experience, are improved by liberal pruning if judiciously applied, yet trim- ming only is resorted to in very many orchards, the trees soon showing a lot of long, naked limbs. All the limbs of my Lombards are kept covered with fruit spurs (trees now nine years old), new ones replacing those that ‘have borne, which would not be the case, it seems to me, with- out considerable pruning. I have rarely had trouble with gumming, never having to take off large limbs.

Among my notes on plums is one which is apparently at variance with what Mr. Galen Wilson says that “certain roots fur- nish nutriment for certain branches, and that it does not go into the common stock for general support of the tree, its foliage and fruit; that is, that if the land on one side of a fruit tree is manured and culti- vated and the other not, the limbs on the manured side should be larger, the foliage thicker and more luxuriant.

Abundance Plums,

I consider the Botan or Abundance of great value either for the family garden or the commercial orchard and would advise every one who has any land to set at least a few trees. Keep them cultivated, mod- erately enriched and the new growth cut back each year and in a few years you will be rewarded. with an abundance of plums. The fruit is amber, turning to a right, cherry color, with a decided white bloom and highly perfumed. Flesh, light yellow, exceedingly juicy and‘tender, and of a delicious sweetness, These plums sell readily in the market at 10c, to 15c. a quart wholesale. I have bought ‘and planted Botans on land that had previously been in grass but had been plowed the year before. I set them.16.feet apart each way and set peach trees between them in the rews, expecting ‘that the peach trees wotld be gone before the plums would need all the room, The first-two or three years I raised raspberries, strawberries and veg- etables of different kinds between the rows. During this time the trees received no fertilizer except as they got the benefit of that used on the crops. Since then I have used bone and potash around the trees and kept the ground cultivated. The first year I noticed a marked difference be-

tween the growth of the Botan and that of the other varieties. The Botan had a rich, luxuriant foliage and grew very fast, mak- ing double the growth, was cut back se- verely the next spring and was succeeded by a still more luxuriant growth the second year, and this growth continued until quite late in the season, although many of the other varieties were attacked by the leaf blight and made no growth after the mid- dle of August.

Last season they blossomed full again and set a full crop. My other varicties ‘blossomed now for the first ‘time and set a partial crop. In order to prevent the ravages of the curculio as well as leaf blight, I sprayed all the trees wifh the Bordeaux mixture and one pound of Paris green to 250 gallons of the mixture. Al- though this did no injury to the other va- rieties, it proved too strong for the Botans and scalded the foliage so that nearly all the leaves came off and although the plums remained on the trees until ripe they had no flavor and were worthless. These trees showed no signs of black knot until last year, although other varieties alt around them were badly affected. Last winter after the leaves avere off I found a few small knots on these trees, but they were so small that I cut them out readily with- out any injury to the trees. I was so favorably impressed with this variety that two years ago I set about 2,000 more trees. I have a number of other varieties of Japanese plums, including Ogon, Bur- bank, Satsuma, Botankio, Hytankio, Cha- bot and Yellow Japan. The Ogon is a good bearer and ripens about ten days ahead of the Botan, but the fruit is of poor quality. None of the others have fruited with me yet, but they are claimed to be valuable varieties, especially the Burbank and Satsuma.—Charles I. Allen, in Farm and Home.

Litchfield Co., Ct.

Japan Plums,

Mr. Joseph Meehan, the veteran horticul- turist, and editor of Mcehan’s Monthly, has the following to say about the Japanese varieties of plums:

“Looking over the field of fruits, I think the most notable advance has been with plums. That the Japanese sorts are of great value is beyond doubt. Besides their excellent quality they growers, and they ‘have proved quite hardy as far north as the vicinity of Lake On- tario, where many sorts have been success- fully fruited. ‘Then, again, some of the sorts ripen much earlier than others before grown; one of them, the Willard, having ripened its fruit at Geneva, N. Y., as early

senson-~as. the L5th-of July.. The mames of some of the ‘best are as follows: Burbank, Botan, Satsuma, Willard, Abundance. Of these Willard is the earli- est. Some of those who have grown these plums say the fruit is less liable to cur- culio attacks than other sorts are, but this will matter but little, as no good grower expects to get along now without the aid of poisonous mixtures for the destruction of insect and fungus pests. A trial of these Japanese plums can safely be advised.”

German Switchen Plums.

German switchen (switches) plums, many of which are exported in the season to the English markets are the fruit gath- ered from trees planted along the high- ways of Rhenish Prussia and neighbor- ing states. ‘The trees are the property of the state and are leased out to contractors. At the proper time small armies of poor people visit these localities and work in a similar way to the roving hop pickers. The contractors are compelled by law to build huts along the route for the shelter of the plum gatherers.—California Fruit Grower.

Plums, Large and Juicy.

The genial Capt. Low had just returned from. Lewiston where he attended the fair with an exhibit of sixteen varieties, the same number that he entered in the Hast- ern Maine Fair in this city last week. In reply to the request of the reporter as to whether he could spare time to show him through his orchard he said that he could and soon the newspaperman was devouring the most delicious plums and listening to the pomologist as he told of the several va- rieties and their histories, with many inter- esting points about the way in which they had been nurtured.

The visitor can go all through the plum part of the orchard and not once be out from beneath the overhanging plums, while there is also room for a handsome flower garden and pear and apple trees, with a ‘berry department where great raspberries, strawberries and gooseberries, each in its season, supply his table and more too. The walks of the orchard and garden are paved with concrete and it is indeed a pleasure to pass about and look at the ripening fruit, the work of nature about done and only waiting the hand of man to pick it.

Among the many varieties in the stroll could be seen three trees of the Washing- ton variety, two of the McLaughlin, three Moore’s Arctic, Madison, Lawrence Fa- vorite (one of the best), Magnum Bonum, a large and good plum, better for preserving than eating, Reine Claude de Bavay, Vic- toria, one of the prettiest varieties grown, turning to bright orange when ripe, Brad- shaw, which has not a plum on it but had furnished samples for three fairs. Jeffer- son, Penobscot, Smith’s Orleans, with trees which are bearing a very few for the first or second years, including blue dam- sons, red gage, Bleeker’s gage and others which have not as yet fruited, but soon will.

Three of the varieties, the McLaughlin, Penobscot and Washington, apart from be- ing three of the finest plums grown any- where, are also especially interesting in all having grown from the same seed.

—The early and the latter part of human life are the best or at least the most worthy of respect. The one is the age of inno- cence, the other of reason.—Joseph Jou- bert.

—Good literature is as necessary to the growth of the soul as good air to the growth of the body, and it is just as bad to put weak thoughts into a child’s mind as to shut it up in an unventilated room.— Charles Dudley Warner.

are most healthy '

Plums in the Chicken Yard.

A writer in the Indiana Farmer says: Theories vanish by the side of facts in every avocation. I have at the present writing three Robinson plum trees loaded with ripening fruit and two others with not a plum left. The five trees were set on the same kind of ground seven years ago and have had the same culture. The game results have been derived for the past three years, the three trees bearing a full crop of sound plums and’ the two a crop of wormy fruit, worthless. The three fruiting trees are in the chicken yard; the others outside. The ground in said yard is not plowed, but early in the spring is swept and kept hard and smooth. Under these trees I scatter bran and screenings, and “biddy’? does the work of eating the pestiferous insects. While looking for the little seeds and specks of bran she gar- nishes her food with the spicy curculio. I know this to be true, for I have the evi- dence. Now, for seven varieties of plums I must speak a good word for the Robin- son. It always produces. I have Wild Goose, Marianna, English Blue, Lombard, Prunus Simoni, etce., but the Robinson gives me the only crop in this year of ’953. I have been out with saw apd lumber this morning and propped up the limbs that are hanging almost to the ground with tempting fruit. Even the chicken yard is not a sure defence with other varieties this year, but the Robinson, where plenty of fowls are enclosed and fed, will not disap- point the planter.

Burbank Japan Plum,

A variety now well known in all the plum regions of the United States. Unsur- passed for beauty and productiveness as well as great hardiness of tree, with a fo- liage so perfect as to contribute in an es- sential degree to its health. Fruit