f 7A

ee inj 5 ce ee ars or dioatross a hook. - Eveyina | ° atue ing to a law, town, city or other pub- | | lic librar p 1ed by a fine of not less than five, nor more than fifty dollars, or by imprisonment in the jail, not ex- | ceeding six months. eS ES This book can be kept ‘Ewo Weeks. When returned to be| handed to the Librarian. Books to be retaken must be returned | to the Library. ———a—— | FINES for retaining beyond the allowed period, one cent a | | day. For injury or loss the actual damage sustained.

a 2 Sie eters


(Reported ihr the Biandasd,] “IMPORTANT DECISION,

ers | Disirict Court of the United States, March, 1857, . In Admiralty. Lovrien vs, THOMPSON, : Desertion of a minor works no forfeiture, as against the | - parent's claim for the value of his services—Rule of | damages— Mode of ascertaining the amount of his lay | —Dffect of usage upon the shippir tract

Uffect of usage upon the shipping contract,

Sprague J.—This is a libel by a father for the ser.

| vices of his minor son ina whaling voyage. The son was born in New Hampshire in the year 1834. | Without the knowledge or consent of his father; he | left his home in New Hampshire, went to Vermont and Maine, where he remained a considerable | time, and thence to Boston. In this city he soon | found himself in a shipping office, where he was induced to engage in the whaling service. He was then nineteen years of age, and so stated to the shipping master who told him that that would not do, that he must be twenty-one; he then said he guessed he was twenty-one, which, without fur- ther enquiry, was deemed satisfactory, and a con- tract was made with him. He was carried to New Bedford and there engaged for a whaling voyage on board the Respondent’s ship, and signed articles at a lay of one one-hundred and ninetieth. He proceeded on the voyage round Cape Horn to the Pacific and Arctic Oceans, where the ship was nearly filled with sperm and whale oil. On her homeward voyage she stopped at the Sandwich Is]- ands, where the son deserted being still a minor. The ship they returned without him to New Bed- ford, and the whole proceeds of the voyage were delivered to the Respondent.

The desertion is now relied upon as a de- fence to this Libel, and itis insisted by the Res- pondent that allright to any share or compensa- tion was thereby forfeited. But even in case of : a seaman of full age, a desertion merely under the general maritime law, does not necessarily work a forfeiture of all antecedent earnings ; it is a mat- ter within the discretion of the Court. As against, \ the claim of the Libellant, a desertion even, under | the statute, is mo defence. The son was a minor | both when he formed and when he dissolved his connection with this ship.

It is not shown that the desertion occasioned any loss or inconvenience to the Respondent, nor is any tobe presumed. The ship was only to be navi- gated home, which requires a less number of hands than the taking of whales. This young man|} rendered faithful and valuable services to the Respondent for the term of fourteen months. His time and labor belonged to his father, who now claims compensation therefor. And it is no answer to say that the son refused to perform fur- ther service. The claim is as well founded in law as it is in justice.

The next question is what shall be the amount '| of compensation to the Libellant? the only means. furnished by the evidence of determining what that shall be is the lay stipulated for in the arti- cles, that is not necessarily the rule of damages in cases like the present, and the parties might have introduced other evidence and the Court might have acopted a different basis of calculation. But as this case has been presented to me, I shall give to the Libellant the stipulated share of the pro- ceeds, making up the voyage in the same manner .| a8 in case of a seaman of full age who has been justifiably separated from the ship before the termination of the voyage. By the articles, if this young man had performed the whole voyage, he would have been entitled to one one-hundred and ninetieth of the proceeds. The Libellantis to have such proportion of that one hundred and ninetieth f as the time of service bore to the whole time of | ' the voyage. ! In the accounts presented by the Respondent, several items have been objected to, the first is the charge of commissions for disposing of the oil and >| bone, and settling the voyage. The obligation to do this is assumed by the owner in the ninth arti- cle of the shipping articles, it is a part of his con- tract, and he hag no more right to make a charge against the seaman for performing the contract than"tbe latter has to make a charge against the owner for performiog the duty of a seaman. The ship’s husband may charge his co-owners a com- pensation by commission or otherwise, but that is no concern of the seaman. s The next is a charge of ten dollars for prepar- ing the vessel fur sea, this is founded upon the!’ sunpositicn that the seaman by his contract is tound to labor in such preparation, and tha¢ he has neglected to do so, and thereby occasioned ex-|: pense to the owner. Whereit is proved’that the sea- |: man has been Galled upon to perform’ that service and has refased or neglected to do so it may be reasonable that bs should pay suck oxpomse, OU there is no such proof in the present case. No op- portunity was given to this young man to perform this labor himself, although it appears he was in New Bedford between two and three weeks before the sailing of the vessel, and it would have been better for him to have been employed on board of her than exposed to the temptations of idleness


te et


a peta ee)

The next charge is Macomber’s bill, which the Libellant’s counsel says contains a charge of five dollars paid to him as a bounty for engaging this young man. ‘bat is, in a settlement under a con- tract one of the parties charges the other a sum of money paid to a third person to procure the other toenter into the contract. Such a claim is inad- missible. , Sd The next item is insurance. Before sailing op the voyage the seaman obtained certain outfits on credit, and gave to the outfitter an order on the owner, which the latter accepted and paid, the the owner thereby became a creditor and beside the personal liability of the seaman, held the pro- ceeds of his voyage as security, and now charges insurance on the amount paid. No insurance was effected at the request of the seaman, or which could in any event enure to his benefit. But the claim is for the risk that the earnings would not be sufficient to pay for the outfits. That is, when a debtor is ready to pay the whole amount of his debt acreditor demands afurther sum for the hazard be originally incurred of the solvency of the debtor. This charge must be disallowed. —j Tt is urged that all these charges are usual in New Bedford. I have not thought it necessary to receive evidence of such usage because the claims are of such a character that usage cannot give them validity. A practice to allow them must have had its origin in the ignorance and necessities of the seamen, and could not have arisen between parties standing on equal grounds. Other items in the account were objected to, some on the ground that they were not necessaries for a minor, and others inadmissible even against an adult, but an agreement between parties precluded the necessity | of the Courts making any decision thereon. De- cree for the Libellant.


during that time. This item cannot be allowad, ee


re Sie a. : . >




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| The following amusing letter, communicated to the Boston Daily Advertiser, shows that the writer

ought to be the editor of a daily newspaper, for which | he is plainly intended by nature, and for which he | seems to be mistaken by the public:

Mr. Editor:—I am constantly consulted by gen- tlemen and others, (who are saul to me by friends whose opinions are far more valnable than mine, and for the purpose of getting rid of them,) on the sub- ject of inventions ranging from patent tooth-picks up to steam engines ; from astronomical apparatus t

patent pumps ; improved capstans, life-boats, wind-

destroying and saving the animal man. It is in vain for me to sct in the midst of letters and papers, and make oath that I know nothing of the subject, care nothing for it, have no time to give to it, and will not be bothered with it. ‘These inventors insist | on it that I must give an opinion, which, unless en- tirely favorable, is considered unkind and unsatisfac- tory. Itisin the hope of being permitted quietly to ride my own hobbies, bare-backed or saddled, that I send you the enclosed notice—which please publish for one week, atleast, and send your bill to me; un- less you consider that it is worth, in risibility, the pa- per and ink which it may cost you. : _ [am very truly yours, ® Dec. 17, 1855. R. B. Forses: ~

NOTICE. Boston, !'7 Dee., 1855.

The subscriber hereby gives formal notice that he is not a practical Engineer or Mechanic; indeed, he is quite unlearned even in the theoties of Engineer- ing aud Mechanics, whether Military, Civil, or Na- val; in short, he considers himself a most unsafe confidant on matters pertaining to machinery, more especially the many new contrivances for saving mon- ey, labor, fuel and life. ;

The subscriber can produce testimonials from sev- eral honest men, whom he has helped to ruin without any charge therefor, that he knows very little about Engineering, Hydrostaties, Acoustics, Gravitation, Astronomy, Navigation, or the occult Sciences.

Notwithstanding the above acknowledgment, and painful as it is to make it, the subseriber will be very happy to continue to waste his neighbors’ time, as heretofore, by giving his opinion on any and all sub- jects connected directly or indirectly, with the above named arts, sciences, imaginations, or under whatso- ever name they may be known, and on any. other subjects about which he may know, more or less—on the following terms and conditions :

Ist. The inventor, or his agent, shall be satisfied with an ivterview, on any week day between mid- night and six a.u., of five minutes, during which time he will be expected to exhibit his plans, draw- ings, models and recommendations, and to. state ex- plicitly his hopes, fears and expectations.

2d. Five dollars per minute the regular rate for the first five minutes, and ten dollars per minute for each extra minute. The interview in no case to ex- ceed ten minutes.

3d, At the termination.of the interview, the snb- scriber will endorse the papers; his name being con- sidered a full receipt for the money, and a certificate of his entire approval (in all cases) of the invention

submitted to him—unless he approves fully nocharge |

will be made.

4th. Written opinions (in answer to written com- munications postpaid with a stamp enelosed) will be charged at five dollars per line—the snbscriber to write as long and as large as he pleases!

5th. Inventors must not, as is usual, illustrate their machines by spitting on the stove or the carpet, nor expect the undersigned to do anything more than to sign his name, oramake bis mark.

Should these terms: be thought wareasonable, it must be rep ered that the proceeds of these con- sultations will be used for bailing an “Insane Asy- lum” for decayed inventors, or to the “Sailor’s Snug

,” one ot the chimerical inventions of the age

now suffering for the want of funds. R. B, PORBES, 10, Devonshire ste


Jasses, pontooas, cannon, andthe various modes of

4 gE SouTx Kenan.

c iging to this

the iralty, relating laid down in the charts, t track to Australia.

ion e@ owners and masters of ships ought to be called to the subject, as many vessels | of whicli no tidings have been heard may have been wrecked on them :—“ Ship Caribou, Hobson’s | Bay, March 13, 1858. I sailed from Liverpool on the Sth December, 1857, bound to Port Phillip, in Australia. On February 22d, wind westerly,

. brisk gale with snow squalls, at 10.33 a m., in a / clear between the squalis, | fancied I saw land to

the southward ; took in studding sails, shortened sail, and stood towards it. At1.30 p. m. hove to

abreast the island in the centre, bearing S. 8. W., |°’

| about 12 miles; lowered a lifeboat and sent her | to theland. I afterwards stood in to about nine miles off shore, and got no ground with 120 fath- oms of line. The island appeared to be ina 8. H, and N. W. direction, about 25 miles, its southern | extreme tending to the 8. W. forming adeep bight on its western side, which was entirely snowcelad, and gave itthe appearance ofa great barrier of ice, The greater part of the whole island was cov- ered with snow ; there was a remarkable group of high rocks lying off tothe N. E. from the 8. E. | part of the island, apparently six or seven miles, and on the N. W. extreme an iceberg aground The island was cloud-capped, but 1 think that its greatest elevafion could not be less than 460 feet above the level of the sea. While hove to, await- ing our boat return, 1 was astonished to see ves- sels at anchor in a bay, we having opened it through drifting to the-S. E, One of them got under way aud stood towards it ;"it proved to be the American schooner Oxford, of Fairhaven. They put out a boat, and the master came on boad ; he told me they called it Hurds Island, and that it was discovered by them eighteen months before. He seemed annoyed that my boat had landed, and advised me to go and leave her behind, saying she would never return ; but I told him I would never leave her while | had another boat toseek for her. I was very anxious, for it was then sundown, and darkness coming on fast; but while speaking the lookout at the masthead reported the boat in sight, He then became more communicative, and told me they were after oil; that the shores of the island swarmed with ele- phants; and that they had sent to America from the island since the discovery 25,000 barrels of oil. The island was bold on the N. E. side, and no hid- den dangers; and the bay where they lay was a/ fine bay or natural harbor with good anchorage; {no sunken dangers, with 12 to 20 fathoms all over, and sheltered from all winds except a north-east- erly, with a fine river of fresh water at the head of it. He also told me that there was another

island west of Hurds, distance some 30 miles, and | k

another E.5. E, 70 miles, both of which he had seen, but never landed on. My own officers that were in the boat confirmed his statement of the | Sea elephants, and the island being well watered; there were penguins and other birds in myriads, and onan island abont a mile apart from the main appeared to be a great mound of guano. While lying to | went to look for my abstract, and it made me shudder to think that only 12 moaths before I ran past the island at midnight in a heavy gale of wind, not more than four or five. miles distant, ignorant of its existence. My greatest wish on sénding my boat to the island was to find out if there were any shipwrecked persons on it whom I might relieve. I send, enclosed with this, a sketch of the island, in the execution of which I was very much assisted by one of the passengers. It was entirely of volcanic origin, my six officers | having found the surface ashes and stones, like the specimen enclosed. J made the northern ex- treme of the island in lat. 53 18, long.73 7 E. | by good chronometers.”— Liverpool Daily Post,

G f ol ig A é


f i 77” (C6 2G fj 5

written by} ;

arctic, will possess an Marat toour readers. We have therefore made the following extracts: “We saw our first iceberg in lat. 62 27 S. lon. 1615 E., Dec, 19th, 1851. On the 20th, in lat. 63) 41S. lon, 164 39 E., the ship was “up to the pack-| _ ice. We were sailing all day on the 21st along the! ice, getting southerly at every opportunity. On) the 22d, in lat. 63 19 S., lon. 17117 E., we. were} | surrounded by ice-islands and pack-ice in every direction. _At this time we saw not but a few}: hump-back and fin-back whales. On the 23d.we } were working our way all day through field ice. On the 24th, while the ship was _working her way through drift ice, we saw at 7 o'clock .A. M., a sperm whale, We lowered and captured him, al- though a thick snow squall came on. Qn the 25th ‘we had fresh gales with ice all areund the ship, our latitude being 63 34 S., lon. 1715 E. On the 26th we saw sperm whale, but it was too rugged to! lower, On the 27th, in lat. 64158, lon. 171 25 E,, there were large quantities of ice in sight. On the the 28th, we had eight icebergs in sight and a very large quantity of updrift ice. On the 29th, the ship was close to the pack-ice, and we were all day working through ice on the 30th. On the 3ist, in lat 64 17 S., lon. 172 34 E., there was too much ice} in sight to the south, the ship working to the]. north. There were thirty icebergs in sight at one time. January Ist, 1852, we had a thick snow storm _ and were close to the pack-ice. On the 2d we had thick fog and rain, We kept all hands looking out for-ice, the ship standing as occasion might re- quire to keep elear of the ice. Qn the 34 we had avery narrow escape from coming in contact with an iceberg. On the 4th we had thick fog, with squalls and saw several icebergs. On the 5th, in| lat. 66 108, lon. 172 10%, the ship making Southerly, there was nothing in sight but iceberos | and pack-iee. On the 6th, at 8 o'clock, P. M,, wel ‘raised asperm whale close to a large iceberg, we lowered and’ ¢aptued him in’ a thick snow squall, haying the ‘whale alongside at 6 o’clock, P. M, _ There..were twelve icebergs in sight at the time. Notwithstanding the storm we cut in the whale, On the 7th we had thirteen icebergs in sight from the deck. We raised a sperm whale and lowered, but the fog shut in and remained so for six hours. ‘We saw tiothing more of the whale. On the 8th, there was nothing in sight but iee. On the 9th we had thick fogs and snow squalls. On the 10th wa experienced thick fog squalls. On the Jith nu- merous ice-islands iisight. On the 12th thick fog and rain. On the 18th, early, we had light winds with fog squalls. There were many hump-back and sulphur-bottom whales in sight, with great! _ numbers of sea-elephants. At one time there

were twenty-four icebergs in sight. - At 6 o’clock, A, M., there were fifty-seven ice- bergs insight. Many whales were in sight, but no right whales nor sperm whales among them, Lat. 66 26 S., lon. 175 26 E., on the 14th, we had fresh ga'es with thick snow squalls.. On the 15th nothing in sight but icebergs, On-the 16th we had variable. weather, with several icebergs in sight On the 17th, thick rainy weather, with fresh galbs, On the 18th, strong gales. with thick weather. On the 19th, thick weather: After beating and

| banging about in the ice for thirty days, I as un- | der the necessity of leaving the ground. We did | not see a single right whale. ’. On the 7th of Feb- | Tuary we came to anchor in Terlagu Bay, where we were not able to get sufficient supplies for a long cruise. On the 13th I took a turn off Cape Saun-

| ders, but saw nothing. On the 28th we dropped | anchor under the N. E. point of Chatham Island | I think this an excellent place for whalers to re- Cruit, We could get no water, but hogs and pota- toes were yery cheap.. I came to Roratonga ex- pressly for water, which I could not get elsewhere.

An Act TO prorecr Martners anp Suip- Owners From Imposition.—This act was approys ed by the Governor on the 9th inst., and is as fols lows :—

See. 1. No person shall board or attempt to board any vessel arriving in Boston harbor, Salem harbor, Fall River harbor, or the harbor of New Bedford and Fairhaven, before said vessel has been. made fast to the wharf, without obtaining leave from the master or person haviug charge of said vessel, or leave in writing from the owner or owners, or agent thereof, under a penalty of not more than fifty dollars for each offence.

See. 2, If any person, not having obtained leave as aforesaid, shall board any v | whatever, in either ofthe harbors aforesaid, after having been ordered not to do so, by any person having charge of such vessel at the time, or if any person shall board such vessel, and shall refuse or neglect to leave her, when ordered to do so, by the person having charge of such vessel, he shall pay a fine of not raore than fifty dols Tars.

See. 3. The provisions of the foregoing sections shall not apply to any pilot or public officer visiting a vessel in the discharge of his duty.

Sec, 4. No person shall entice or 4 tempt to entice or persuade any member of the crew of any vessel arriving in either of the above named harbors, or of any v l about to sail from either of said harbors, to leave or desert said vessel, before the expiration of his term of sery such vessel, ui der a penalty of not more than fifty dollars for each offence.

Sec. 5. If any person shall knowingly and wilful- y persuade oraid any person who shall have shipped ona vi * from any port in this Commonwealth, and received advanced wages therefor, to wilfully ne-~ glect to proceed on such voyage, he shall forfeit a sum not.exceeding one hundred dollars, to be reeov- ere! as herein provided.

Sec. 6. The penalties herein provided may be re- covered on complaint in the police court of Boston, when the offence is committed in Boston or Boston har in. the police courtof Salem, when the ofs fence is committed in Salem or Salem harbor; in the police court of Fall River when the offence is commit- ed in Fall Riveror Fall River harbor; and in the police court-of New B rd, when the offence is committed in New Bedford or Fairhaven, or in the harbor of New Bedtord or Fairhayen, saving to the party convicied his right of appeal. And any person offending

al any provision of this act may be an

r without warrant, by any officer quali serve Criminal process in the city where the offence is triable; provided that the person arrested shall be forthwith brought before the court.

Sec. 7, For the purposes of this act, the outer lims its of Boston barbor shall be, for any vessel bound to said harbor, the line fixed by the 24th section of chapter 32 of the Revised Statates; and the outer limits of Salem harbor shall be, for any vessel bound to said harbor, the chops of said harbor; the harbor of Full River shall be deemed to include the waters of Taunton Great River, and Mount Hope Bay, from the South line of the town of Frecitown, to Rhode Is- land State line, including the shores of Somerset; and the outer limits of the harbor of New Bedtord and Fairbayen, for vessels bound to said harbor, shall be the outer limits of Buzzard’s Bay; and the harbors of New Bedford and Fairhaven shall be cons sidered as one harbor; and Boston harbor shall be deemed to include the shores of Chelsea and Charles- town; and the word vessel,:in this act, shall also ins clude any vessel propelled by steam.

Approved May 9, 1857.


} AND OAK, % PARLOR, DINING ROOM, ' D CHAMBER, AND OFFICE, ‘fe FURNITURE, ROSEWoop SUITS, constantly on hand, up- fq sholstered ji BROCATELS, } Z PLUSHKS, ; REPS, | ' HAIR CLUTHS, KC. &C. fi I have also for sale the celebrate; JCKER’S PATENT SPRING BED, y acknowledged to be the very best Bed ; yet invented | CALEB MAXFIEL?, } my3 No. 189 Union st. |

8000 ROLLS


Hing | HUEY,


ap29 eee ee ade



OF DESIRABLE SHADES, Are to be found at ; J. H. SAFFORD’s 38 Purchase ct.


Ais, MANTILLA FR INGES, ap 3. Hu, SAPFORD’S, 38 Purchase st,


We have now in Store a splendid stock, in PLAIN GOLD STONE CAMEO, LA VA, MOSAIC, PEARL, GILTand IVory, with fine Gilt rims, in all colors and sizes, J. H. SAFPORD, 38 Purchase st,

Hosiery and -@] oves, OF ALE STYLES AND PRICKS, FOR Sa: E AT J. A. SAF'FORD’S, 88 Purchase st,

- Mrs. Bishop’s Corsets,

A full supply of ,( ORSELS, of the above celebrated manufacture, acknowledged by competent judges to be the best and cheapest Corset now in market, at

J. H. SARFORD!S, 38 Purchase st,

April 29th, 1857.


ee eT = 2

Att Asout Brecxingice O11.—Among the causes which have contributed to the recent temy or- ary discussion of price the Oil markets, doubtless the inflated statements that have been set forth in in- terested quarters, relating to the cotfiparative excel- lence and cheapness of Breckinridge oil,have not been among the least. Gas, «we were told, had already taken the place of Sperm Qil to a considerable ex- tent as a ns for producing illumination, although at a somewhat higher cost, and the new discovery of Breckinridge Oil, now threatened entirely to super- cede both, for its superior excellence and cheapness. So far as we have learned, however, no satisfactory result has yet been attained with the Breckinridge Coal Oil, while on the other hand, the experiments that have been made by scientific and competent Judges are entirely adverse to the claims under which it has been ushered before the public.

The following article on this subject has been fur-

nished by Mr. James Macy of Nantucket for publi-

cation, and as coming from one who has had much practical experience on the subject will be read with much interest. In an article in’ the Nantucket Mir- ror, Mr. Macy says :—

“Having heard and read much about the lubrica ting and burning qualities of this oil, I procured a sample from the Company’s Depot, 98 Broadway,

N. Y., and have (for my own Satisfaction) made some.

considerable examinatiou of it, and find that it is not a new article, but its manufacture has been reported by eminent chemists and others for many years, be- ing produced by the distillation of coal tar (coal naptha) spirits or oil of coal tar.

It is a volatile oil, and when unmixed with any fat oil, may be easily tested by saturating a piece ot paper with it, and hoiding it to the fire for a moment whcn it will entirely evaporate, and leave the paper clean, not even leaving its ordinary offensive smell. It comports with the fat oils, when mixed with them precisely as oil of turpentine, rendering them more fluid, and capable of enduring a lower degree of temperature, without changing its limpid appearance, than any of the fat oils, unmixed. The Breckin- ridge is said to endure a temperature of 10° below zero, without thickening. Perhaps this was as low a temperature as it was thought necessary to warrant for present purposes, but I can see no reason why it should not endure a temperature of 100° below zero, or even like alcohol, remain perfectly limpid at any degree of cold, so to speak, produced by chem- ists as yet.

Tts burning qualities are poor, as it produces a dark flame and very much smoke, with’an offensive

| |

| smell, and deposits much soot in the apartment, f

where it is burned—that is—when burned in a coms mon stand lamp or solar lamp ; and probably when burned in any lamp so constructed as to consume the smoke, will also consume the oil so fast as to make it more expensive than even sperm oil ; for when it is burned in the same kind of lamp with an equal quantity of sperm oil, and wicks precisely alike, the Breckinridge oil will be consumed in seven hours, while the sperm oil will continue to burn twelve hours and fifteen minutes; the former giving a very inferior light, and much smoke, while the lat- ter gives a white and brilliant light, with smoke.. The specific gravities of the fat oils in common use, and also of Breckinridge oil, oil of turpentine, and alcohol, are as follows, at a temperature of 60° Fuahreheit :— ; aoe oa 0.881 pt SW bale. Oily cr0s. 0.829. ee _ Lard Oil, : 0 923 Oil of Turpentine, - 0.878 Breckinridge Oil, 5 0.855 Alcohol, at 84 per cent, 0.852 The Breckinridge is the ot flnid ooo!

eee -- Lard Oil, 0 923 Oil of Turpentine, 0.878 Breckinridge Oil, 0.855 Alcohol, at 84 per cent, 0.892

The Breckinridge is the lightest fluid excepting only the alcohol, which is but $4 per cent., while ab- solute alcohol has a specific grayity of 0.794; and so also, Breckinridge oil is capable of a higher rectifica- tion, until its specific gravity is 0.753, showing that when both are treated alike as to their rectification, the Breckinridge oil is much the lighest fluid, and is extremely volatile. An author states that:

“Mineral naptha is a compound of several hydro car- bons, to which the names paraffine, naptha, napthene, napthale, &c., have been given. A similar fluid to min- eral naptha is obtained by the distillation of coal tar (coal naptha) and is largely employed in the arts, in the preparation of coarse paints and varnishes, and for the solution of India Rubber. It is also found in the form of a limpid bitumen, which exudes from the sur- face of the earth in various parts of the world. It pos- sesses a penetrating odor, and a yellow color, but may be rendered colorless by distillation; it boils at 160°, and is very inflammable. Specific gravity, 0.753 to 0.836. It does not mix with water, but imparts to that fluidits peculiar taste and smell ; it mixes with alcohol and oils.

Breckinridge oil when used to mix paint, dries more slowly than oil of turpentine, but probably will answer the purpose ; yery much unlike sperm oil, which cannot be made to give up its greasing quality, or to dry, even when severely boiled with a mixture of any or all the dryers used by painters in linseed oil.

If, then, Breckinridge is a volatile or essential oil, is fit for the manufacture of paints or varnishes, is subject to decomposition by access of air or light, and many other things which might be mentioned, it follows that it can have—in itself, unmixed’ with the fat oils—no solitary power to overcome friction on machinery, and as it is aiso largely composed of ros: in, which passes over in the process of distillation, it must be a hopeless prospect that it will ever be successfully introduced for purposes of burning, ex~ cept where a dense smoke will be no inconven

Although many and various kinds of substitutes for sperm aud whale oil, have been brought before the public for the last thirty years, yet I think that-a fair experiment will show, that as yet nothing has appeared so effectual and so economical as sperm oil for muchinery, and whale oil for purposes of light, being at the same time perfectly safe. And when the importers and manufaciurers of sperm oil will ex- pend but a small portion of the time and money, in introducing pure sperm oil to the necessary consum- ers of it, that others have done in palming off their various impositions as a better article than sperm oil, the consumers will be satisfied that unadulterated sperm oil (an article rarely found in the market we fear) is the. cheapest and hest article, even at the highest price it has. hitherto been selling for, and whale oil will also be found the cheapest light, in properly constructed lamps, that can be procured.

One word for Paraftine candles, said to be another production of the distillation of coal. I have a relia- ble author who gives the following receipt for produ cing this article from beach tar (about the same properties as coal tar, so far as paraffine is concern- ed) :—

“Distil beach tar to dryness, rectify the heavy oily portion of the product till a thick matter begins to rise; then change the receiver, and moderately urge the heat as long as anything passes over. Next digest the pro- duct in the second receiver, in an equal measure of al- cohol of 0.833 or 90 per cent., and gradually add six or seven parts more of alcohol; crystals of paraffine will gradually fall down, which, after being washed in cold alcohol, must be dissolved in boiling alcohol, which will | deposits crystals of pure paraffine as it cools ; white, odorless, tasteless; specific gravity 0,87; melts at 112° and dissolves in boiling alcohol and in oils, It burns entirely away with a ciear white flame without smoke.’

Rather expensive candles we should judge.


550,000 ACRES SELECTED Pine and Farming Lan. | IN MICHIGAN. { | |

uth 2d

The Saint Mary’- Wiatls

SHIP CANAL VJOMPAN’ Ilouse OFFER FOR SALE, or par | TIX ESE LANDS, wh re principally st. ated in the Lower Penin of Mi-higan on at | the vicinity oftie large streams and rivers, easy o = | CeS8, and selected under more favorable circumst; Dr. sale, than = “Premipe Any other Wesiern Lands, use st. Were chosen with particular re nec to their. loc = on the streams and the quantity and quality of the. | timber. Ont account, peer } Fo

C r

Y LumbDering Purposes, | They are ver ; vie and valuable. The streams large, and e floating log: at all seasons oj year, with » their mouths, on the Lake. any lemments and ex:ensive. lu land conducted with unitorm roving alrearly the must profitable lumber o;‘ tionsin the Union, aud having access, by meaus of J navigation, to CHICAGO, DETROIT, \

Tracts of from 40 to 40.000 Acres, ¢ will be found at convenient points, affding oppor! or the most extenyiye Jumbe‘ Operations. A large portion of these lands are among THE BESY FARMING LANDS oF THE WI and as they contain enough ofthe FINEST PINE 7 BER to more than pay for the land, fencing, mode Ss, and offer very superior inducements to tr home. IS MILD AND EQUABLE, meet- | and soil and cli aate both suited to all the grains, and produce raised inthe most favored portions ot §

§ COMPANITES OF 10, 15 OR, 20 PERSONS, with their families, will find Jocation just suited to 4 formation of a settlemeni, with good water power, | Convenient access to neighboring settlements. |

e best ) TERMS: By, 8it- One fifth will be required atthe date of sale, and sidence | balance in one, two three and four years with interes | Court, | six per cent per annum. aiming | The Company have full and complete description O two | eacii tract of their lands, from a total exploration by e of | eral different parties, with accurace maps of each to pr st. ship, according to government surveys. These ma; | seen at the : PLAND OFFICE OF THE COMPANY IN DETR: F BORA MICHIGAN. oe ‘Copies of Maps, field notes, and other information e two cerning the lands will be furnished without charg Base- | those wishing to purchase. ; > Large Maps of the State, showing the lands of st., by | Company, will be found at public places in most. of leew | principal towns in the Eastern and Northwester 1 Sl Bs Address, GEO. S. FROST,